A genetically encoded sensor for real-time monitoring of poly-ADP-ribosylation dynamics in-vitro and in cells

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A genetically encoded sensor for real-time monitoring of poly-ADP-ribosylation dynamics in-vitro and in cells

Authors

Thomas, A.; Upadhyaya, K.; Bejan, D.; Adoff, H.; Cohen, M. S.; Schultz, C.

Abstract

ADP-ribosylation, the transfer of ADP-ribose (ADPr) from nico-tinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) groups to proteins, is a conserved post-translational modification (PTM) that occurs most prominently in response to DNA damage. ADP-ribosylation is a dynamic PTM regulated by writers (PARPs), erasers (ADPr hy-drolases), and readers (ADPR binders). PARP1 is the primary DNA damage-response writer responsible for adding a polymer of ADPR to proteins (PARylation). Real-time monitoring of PARP1-mediated PARylation, especially in live cells, is critical for under-standing the spatial and temporal regulation of this unique PTM. Here, we describe a genetically encoded FRET probe (pARS) for semi-quantitative monitoring of PARylation dynamics. pARS feature a PAR-binding WWE domain flanked with turquoise and Venus. With a ratiometric readout and excellent signal-to-noise characteristics, we show that pARS can monitor PARP1-dependent PARylation temporally and spatially in real-time. pARS provided unique insights into PARP1-mediated PARylation kinetics in vitro and high-sensitivity detection of PARylation in live cells, even under mild DNA damage. We also show that pARS can be used to determine the potency of PARP inhibitors in vitro and, for the first time, in live cells in response to DNA damage. The robustness and ease of use of pARS make it an important tool for the PARP field.

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