Epidemiological Study Of Foot And Mouth Diseases Through Serological And Molecular Investigation In Cattle Of Selected Districts, Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia

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Epidemiological Study Of Foot And Mouth Diseases Through Serological And Molecular Investigation In Cattle Of Selected Districts, Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia

Authors

Tegegne, H. C.; Jemal, S.; Ejigu, E. A.

Abstract

Foot and mouth disease is highly contagious and notifiable transboundary disease of cattle that can cause a huge cattle productivity and production loss. A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate sero prevalence, assess associated risk factors and molecular detection of FMDV in cattle. Cluster sampling technique was employed for the selection of sampling units for the seroprevalence study. A total of 245 blood samples were collected using plain vacutainer tubes and the obtained sera were tested by 3ABC-Ab ELISA at the Animal Health institute. Twenty nine (29) epithelial tissue and vesicular fluid samples were collected purposively from outbreak cases for the molecular detection of FMDV. Kebeles and individual cattle were randomly selected, while households were designated using systematic random sampling method. An overall prevalence of 22.45% (95%, CI=17.22%-27.67%) was recorded. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that herd size, age, new animal introduction into the herd and management system were the major risk factors, significantly associated with FMD sero positivity (P<0.05). The large herd size had 4-times (OR=3.97; P=0.000) more odds of FMD sero-positivity compared to the small herd sizes. The FMD seropositivity decreases 0.11013 as the Cattle age increases by 5years with the (coefficient=-0.11; P=0.172). The animals from herd to which new animals was introduced had nearly 9-times more odds (OR=9.40; P=0.000) of sero positivity than the animals sampled from no new animal introduction. Likewise, cattle those reared under extensive management system were 4-times (OR=4.10; P=0.009) at higher chance of being sero-positive compared to the intensive one. From outbreak cases, 27 (93.1%) were identified positive for FMDV serotype SAT 2. A total of 124 individuals were interviewed, and the majority responded that there is no practice of reporting disease outbreak, free animal movement, free rangeland grazing and they use traditional case management as a means of controlling the disease. The finding of FMD virus antibodies in cattle from all study areas indicate endemic circulation of the virus. The implementation of regular vaccination could minimize the occurrence and further molecular characterization should be needed to identify other serotypes of FMD virus that could inform to supply an appropriate vaccine to the area.

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