Temperature-Dependent Fold-Switching Mechanism of the Circadian Clock Protein KaiB

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Temperature-Dependent Fold-Switching Mechanism of the Circadian Clock Protein KaiB


Liwang, A.; Dinner, A.; Sosnick, T.; Wang, L.-P.; Partch, C. L.; Zhang, N.; Sood, D.; Guo, S.; Chen, N.; Baxa, M.; Chavan, A.; Hong, L.; Antoszewski, A.; Marianchuk, T.; Peng, X.; Xiao, Y.; Dey, S.


The oscillator of the cyanobacterial circadian clock relies on the ability of the KaiB protein to switch reversibly between a stable ground-state fold (gsKaiB) and an unstable fold-switched fold (fsKaiB). Rare fold-switching events by KaiB provide a critical delay in the negative feedback loop of this post-translational oscillator. In this study, we experimentally and computationally investigate the temperature dependence of fold switching and its mechanism. We demonstrate that the stability of gsKaiB increases with temperature compared to fsKaiB and that the Q10 value for the gsKaiB [->] fsKaiB transition is nearly three times smaller than that for the reverse transition. Simulations and native-state hydrogen-deuterium exchange NMR experiments suggest that fold switching can involve both subglobally and near-globally unfolded intermediates. The simulations predict that the transition state for fold switching coincides with isomerization of conserved prolines in the most rapidly exchanging region, and we confirm experimentally that proline isomerization is a rate-limiting step for fold switching. We explore the implications of our results for temperature compensation, a hallmark of circadian clocks, through a kinetic model.

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