Electron Interference as a Probe of Majorana Zero Modes

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Electron Interference as a Probe of Majorana Zero Modes


Nadav Drechsler, Omri Lesser, Yuval Oreg


Detecting Majorana zero modes (MZMs) in topological superconductors remains challenging, as localized non-topological states can mimic MZM signatures. Here, we propose electron interferometry by non-local transport measurements as a definitive probe to distinguish MZMs from non-topological states. We develop an analytical minimal model showing that interference via two MZMs exhibits a robust pattern, in contrast to a non-topological system. We then numerically confirm this using various topological superconductor models. We find that MZMs are characterized by an interference pattern that is insensitive to various perturbations, such as electrostatic gate potential, and resilient to disorder. Our proposed interferometry approach offers an experimentally accessible means to detect MZMs, probing their underlying nature through a universal response.

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