LMNA-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Single-Cell Transcriptomics during Patient-derived iPSC Differentiation Support Cell type and Lineage-specific Dysregulation of Gene Expression and Development for Cardiomyocytes and Epicardium-Derived Cells with Lamin A/C Haploinsufficiency

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LMNA-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Single-Cell Transcriptomics during Patient-derived iPSC Differentiation Support Cell type and Lineage-specific Dysregulation of Gene Expression and Development for Cardiomyocytes and Epicardium-Derived Cells with Lamin A/C Haploinsufficiency

Authors

Zaragoza, M. V.; Bui, T.-A.; Widyastuti, L.; Mehrabi, M.; Cang, Z.; Sha, Y.; Grosberg, A.; Nie, Q.

Abstract

LMNA-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an autosomal-dominant genetic condition with cardiomyocyte and conduction system dysfunction often resulting in heart failure or sudden death. The condition is caused by mutation in the Lamin A/C (LMNA) gene encoding Type-A nuclear lamin proteins involved in nuclear integrity, epigenetic regulation of gene expression, and differentiation. Molecular mechanisms of disease are not completely understood, and there are no definitive treatments to reverse progression or prevent mortality. We investigated possible mechanisms of LMNA-Related DCM using induced pluripotent stem cells derived from a family with a heterozygous LMNA c.357-2A>G splice-site mutation. We differentiated one LMNA mutant iPSC line derived from an affected female (Patient) and two non-mutant iPSC lines derived from her unaffected sister (Control) and conducted single-cell RNA sequencing for 12 samples (4 Patient and 8 Control) across seven time points: Day 0, 2, 4, 9, 16, 19, and 30. Our bioinformatics workflow identified 125,554 cells in raw data and 110,521 (88%) high-quality cells in sequentially processed data. Unsupervised clustering, cell annotation, and trajectory inference found complex heterogeneity: ten main cell types; many possible subtypes; and lineage bifurcation for Cardiac Progenitors to Cardiomyocytes (CM) and Epicardium-Derived Cells (EPDC). Data integration and comparative analyses of Patient and Control cells found cell type and lineage differentially expressed genes (DEG) with enrichment to support pathway dysregulation. Top DEG and enriched pathways included: 10 ZNF genes and RNA polymerase II transcription in Pluripotent cells (PP); BMP4 and TGF Beta/BMP signaling, sarcomere gene subsets and cardiogenesis, CDH2 and EMT in CM; LMNA and epigenetic regulation and DDIT4 and mTORC1 signaling in EPDC. Top DEG also included: XIST and other X-linked genes, six imprinted genes: SNRPN, PWAR6, NDN, PEG10, MEG3, MEG8, and enriched gene sets in metabolism, proliferation, and homeostasis. We confirmed Lamin A/C haploinsufficiency by allelic expression and Western blot. Our complex Patient-derived iPSC model for Lamin A/C haploinsufficiency in PP, CM, and EPDC provided support for dysregulation of genes and pathways, many previously associated with Lamin A/C defects, such as epigenetic gene expression, signaling, and differentiation. Our findings support disruption of epigenomic developmental programs as proposed in other LMNA disease models. We recognized other factors influencing epigenetics and differentiation; thus, our approach needs improvement to further investigate this mechanism in an iPSC-derived model.

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